12.8 and Plate XXIV). He replaced the bronze trusses with the structure of timber rafters, collars, purlins, struts, and braces apparently implemented by Francesco Borromini, whose working drawings are preserved in the Albertina Museum in Vienna. Carlo Fea, Dei diritti del principato sugli antichi edifizj publici sacri e profani in occasione del Panteon di Marco Agrippa: memoria, Rome 1806; and Fea, L’integrita’ del Panteon di M. Agrippa ora S. Maria ad martyres rivendicata al principato, Rome 1807, provide additional documentation. Under the direction of Edmondo Sanjust di Teulada the 1909 Piano Regolatore sought to minimize the necessity of crossing the historic center, much of which was to remain intact. Under the Lateran Accords of 1929, the Pantheon became the Palatine basilica of the Savoy family, a reprise of dynastic intentions that can be traced back to the days of Augustus and Agrippa. 200–202. 1532–1536. Hadrian has nothing to do with it!”71 This reaction deserves to be recalled as we evaluate Hetland’s redating of bricks to the Trajanic period in Chapter Three. Were they elaborated with ornamental moldings? In 1928, the niches and altars in the Rotunda were reconstructed to eliminate most vestiges of baroque decoration. Tilmann Buddenseig and Matthias Winner, Berlin 1968, pp. He judged the windows of the attic to be “most graceful,” the portico was a cosa rarissima (“a most rare thing”), and from the pavement to the cornicione a disegno angelico, e non umano (an “angelic, and not human design”), as we have already mentioned. By 1833, doubts even arose about the true location of Raphael’s remains, giving occasion for a dramatic exhumation by candlelight.60 It revealed that Raphael was indeed buried at the site, a notion that still reverberates among today’s visitors. 59 Pasquali 2004, p. 48, quotes Stendhal writing in 1817: “Sooner or later it will no longer be known as a church, which in times past protected it against the spirit of Christianity. The original scheme, which appears in the sketches of early modern antiquarians and in Giovanni Paolo Pannini’s views, as well as a small section of the present attic reconstructed in the 1930s, consisted of little pilasters (or “pilastrini”) arranged in groups of four to either side of the “windows” above the exedras of the building. Contracts for these marble figures in 1725 and 1727 tell us that St. Rasius by Moderati was located to the left of the high altar and St. Anastasius by Cametti to the right, where they are seen today (Fig. 38 Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis anglorum ii, 4; cf. Alexander VII’s success in confining the market stalls behind the fountain must have encouraged Clement XI to embellish the Fontana del Pantheon in 1710–1711. 75–81. Plans for the monument began even before Washington was elected president. Exterior view of Pantheon; anonymous sixteenth-century drawing. Knowledge of it may have come to Rome in the wake of the defeat of Anthony and Cleopatra by Augustus (then called Octavian) and his admiral Agrippa at the battle of Actium in 31 BC.8 This notion would be consistent with the suggestion by Filippo Coarelli that the Pantheon was sited on the ancient palus Caprae, where according to one tradition Romulus, legendary founder of Rome, became the god Quirinus and ascended to the heavens. 1.15). As Arnold Nesselrath’s Chapter Nine makes clear, the prized porphyry shafts on the aedicules of the piers have been robbed and replaced with columns of either paler reddish rosso antico or gray granite, the latter representing a rupture with the intended color scheme. In the first Master Plan of Rome in 1873, the complete liberation of the building from all structures attached to it was foreseen, as was the extension of Piazza della Rotonda. 6 Reasons Graphic Design is More Important to Your Business to think.-reasons-graphic-design-important-business-think-0928602 Dwiggins, W. A. 1.13; see Chapter Five by Gene Waddell). Eveline G. Bouwers, New York 2012, pp. It was he, for example, who hired Bernini to remodel Piazza San Pietro. The original decoration of the coffering of the dome is likewise a matter of conjecture: Did the coffers contain stellar or floral motifs? Aided by countless photographs available on the Internet and laser-scanned surveys of the building, such as those produced by the Karman Center of the University of Bern, new information offers new insights on matters of construction and issues of stability. Frank Lloyd Wright called his Guggenheim Museum “my Pantheon.” For Louis Kahn, the “Pantheon is really a world within a world.”, Such ideas represent a beginning, not an end, of broader studies of the fabric that arose sometime in the second century AD. View of the Pantheon from the front, at high level. 4, pp. 33 REFERENCES Cartwright, M. 2013, Pantheon. 10 William C. Loerke, “Georges Chedanne and the Pantheon: A Beaux Arts Contribution to the History of Roman Architecture,” Modulus 1982, pp. An excavation directed by Luca Beltrami, assisted by the young Pier Olinto Armanini in the years 1892–1893, added fuel to the debate. Financial constraints and compromise with entrenched forces also limited Alexander’s work on the interior of the Pantheon. Perhaps, as Nesselrath proposes, Raphael was responding to impediments at the site, such as the medieval high altar that was refashioned in the 1490s. 52 and 54 verso. The British Museum Thorsten Opper, British Museum Research Publications 175, London 2013, pp. 1.4). Originally 28 in number (10 on both flanks and 8 by the entrance), each of the reliefs shows a garland slung between two candelabras, with small religious utensils represented as though hovering over the garlands in the center.22, 1.9. Among these building projects was a defensive fortification, now referred to as Hadrian’s Wall, marking the northwest frontier of the Roman Empire. Brick facing was used to contain the concrete, and relieving arches (arches over voids) enabled the thickness of the walls to be honeycombed with cavities that made the structure lighter and hastened the curing of the concrete (see Plate IV). 23–24; Wilson Jones, “Who Built the Pantheon? It is a cultural and professional movement, focused on how we build and operate high-velocity organizations, born from the experiences of its practitioners. Dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, the Parthenon sits high atop a compound of temples known as the Acropolis of Athens. Although it would become one of the staples of architectural typology, at the time the combination of three distinct geometric elements was relatively novel: a circular rotunda, a rectangular portico, and a fabric that mediated between them (generally known in English as the transitional or intermediate block). As Rome declined and the city shrank from the boundaries of its ancient walls after the fourth century AD, the decay and collapse of buildings, the repeated flooding of the Tiber, and the demise of drainage systems produced an inexorable rise of the ground level. 28 Wolf-Dieter Heilmeyer, “Korinthische Normalkapitelle: Studien zur Geschichte der römischen Architekturdekoration,” Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Römische Abteilung. The eye revels in what is in effect a “pantheon of marbles.” Their varied and distant provenance – from modern-day Egypt, Greece, Turkey, and Tunisia – provides a visual reminder of the ample reach of Rome’s imperial dominion, its unity, and its collective wealth.26 The majestic Corinthian order provides another unifying theme for the interior and for the entire building. (The Bern Digital Pantheon Project, BERN BDPP0087, drawn from information in Licht 1968), V. Plan of pavement, niches, and high altar; anonymous seventeenth-century drawing associated with the Bernini workshop. It was re… Instead, the metal from a number of cannon at Castel Sant’Angelo can be traced to the Pantheon bronze beams, the very antiquities that had so often been admired by draftsmen and antiquarians in the previous century.50. The lowest incorporates the main columns and pilasters standing on the pavement and capped with a full entablature, and its prominent cornice extending around the girth of the fabric, broken only at the entrance arch and the main apse. Because the towers had assumed the role of marking a church, their removal signaled a return to its pre-Christian origins, a change not welcomed by the Vatican (see Chapter Twelve). 1.18, a and b). Detailed inspections and technical analysis during a campaign of conservation under the direction of Mario Lolli Ghetti in the 1990s have revealed the full extent of the renovations of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when a substantial proportion of the ancient revetment was replaced with thinner sheets of marble (often reworked ancient material) bonded to backing slabs of coarser stones. (Conception Mark Wilson Jones, realization Robert Grover), One of the most intellectually compelling aspects of the Pantheon is the simple proportional scheme that underlies its form. The wall measures 73 miles in length and stretches from coast to coast across modern-day northern England. It would be a sublime museum.”. However, other aspects of the composition in this area of the building undermine its unity. (Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett, Roman sketchbooks, vol. The impetus for this act of official vandalism was the need for metal to cast cannon for the protection of Castel Sant’Angelo, but the negative response was apparently so overwhelming that the pope subsequently claimed to need the materials for Bernini’s Baldacchino in St. Peter’s. In a concluding chapter to this volume, Richard Etlin discusses the various associative values that the Pantheon has embodied in the modern era. 1.6. a) West corner of pediment (Haselberger 1994, Abb. R. R. 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